infant reflux

Reflux… details for parents who want to understand what their doctor was talking about.


Defining Infant Reflux

How Colic Calm Stops Colic

Reflux is a normal condition in most babies. In fact, everyone, adults included, refluxes at various points during the day, usually after meals. The terms, “reflux,” “gastroesophageal reflux”, or “GER” refer to the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus. When discussing reflux, most parents and patients are thinking of acid reflux. It is important to note that reflux may be acidic or non-acidic. It may be composed of liquid or gas.

When you see a baby spitting up, the refluxed material is coming all the way from the stomach, up the esophagus and out the mouth. Spit up, though sometimes forceful and startling for a parent, is common and not harmful to a baby. Babies that frequently spit up but are growing well and thriving are often referred to as “happy spitters.” These babies generally do not require treatment.

A peak in reflux symptoms is seen around age 4 months, with over half of all infants exhibiting some symptoms. Reflux resolves in most infants by 12-18 months.

When Reflux Becomes A Problem

If reflux is accompanied with poor weight gain, extreme discomfort, vomiting, significant sleep problems, refusal to take milk, or respiratory symptoms, it is referred to as complicated reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This condition is much less common in babies than uncomplicated reflux. Although uncomplicated reflux is very common in babies, many parents are concerned that their child is in discomfort and seek treatment. Similarly, many pediatricians end up treating for reflux unnecessarily, despite the fact that acid-reducing medications have never been proven effective in infants with reflux.

Symptoms of Reflux

Many parents may come across signs or symptoms of GERD in their research across the internet. This can be very confusing since many of the symptoms or behaviors of GERD, like arching of the back or intermittent fussiness, overlap with those seen in babies without GERD. Some more concerning signs or symptoms of reflux (but not diagnostic of GERD) include:
  • Poor weight gain
  • Refusal to drink milk
  • Respiratory symptoms, like recurrent pneumonia
  • Persistent forceful vomiting
  • Disturbance in sleep

Causes of Reflux

Normal, physiologic reflux is thought to be caused by relaxation of the muscle between the esophagus and stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). In infants, the LES is thought to strengthen with time as reflux diminishes. After meals and with certain foods, the LES may relax more, contributing to physiologic reflux in infants, children, and adults. In adults and older children, certain medical conditions, obesity, and lifestyle are associated with reflux. In children, underlying medical conditions, like neurologic syndromes, genetic disorders, and anatomic abnormalities contribute to pathologic reflux. These children more often need diagnostic studies and intervention as compared to children without any underlying conditions.

Diagnosis of Reflux

It is wise to consult with your health care provider before assuming your child has GERD. Since many of the symptoms and behaviors of babies with complicated reflux are present in normal infants, distinguishing GERD from uncomplicated (normal) reflux is a challenge for both parents and healthcare providers. There is no single test or set of tests that confirms the diagnosis of reflux. In the vast majority of cases, the history a parent gives guides a health care provider’s management. However, in some atypical or more severe cases of suspected GERD, your doctor may order some tests:
  • Upper GI series (or barium swallow): This radiologic study is done to make sure that your baby’s anatomy is normal, since in some rare cases, congenital problems of the stomach or intestines can cause symptoms seen in GERD. The test is performed by having your baby drink some fluid that is then seen over a series or X-rays. If the fluid flows through your baby’s gut as expected, the radiologist will see a normal outline of your baby’s stomach and upper intestine. Note that fluid is often seen flowing back up into the esophagus during this study. This is expected since some level of reflux is normal in everyone. In other words, seeing reflux during an upper GI series is not diagnostic of reflux. Considerations: Though not invasive, it is important to note that an upper GI series will expose your child to some radiation, as all tests involving X-rays or CT scans do. Also, after this study, your baby’s stool may be whitish in color. This is due to the barium passing through and it is not a cause for concern.
  • pH probe: pH is a measure of acidity. A pH probe placed inside the esophagus can measure the acidity present. This is a slightly more invasive study that may help your doctor diagnose your baby’s condition if symptoms are severe or persistent. It is done under the care of a pediatric gastrointestinal specialist. A pH probe is physically inserted through your baby’s nose into his esophagus. The probe is usually left in place for 18-24 hours to measure the frequency and duration of acid in the esophagus. This test is not diagnostic of GERD since the presence of reflux or acidity in the esophagus is not necessarily correlated with symptoms. Considerations: A pH probe involves the placement of a probe inside your child’s esophagus via his nose. Though there are rarely severe complications, the placement of the probe can be uncomfortable, especially if your child resists. It is sometimes difficult to keep the probe in place if a child does not cooperate. Correct placement of the probe may be confirmed by X-ray though this is not usually necessary. Children may need to fast prior to placement of the probe.
  • Esophageal impedance testing: This test measures the presence of refluxed material in addition to pH monitoring. As such, it can differentiate between is acidic and non-acidic reflux and also between liquid or gas reflux. Additionally, impedance testing can evaluate whether a baby’s symptoms are actually associated with reflux episodes. This may be important in situations where a baby does not respond to typical treatment. For example, if a baby’s symptoms are seen during non-acidic reflux episodes, it clarifies for parents and doctors why acid-reducing medications may have been ineffective. Considerations: Esophageal impedance testing, like a pH probe, involves the placement of a probe through your child’s nose and into his esophagus. This may be uncomfortable for your child. Usually patients are asked to fast for several hours prior to the placement of the probe.
  • Upper endoscopy: This test is reserved for very severe cases. A pediatric gastroenterologist performs endoscopies in an outpatient center or hospital. A baby is placed under anesthesia and a camera is inserted into the esophagus. Photos and biopsies of the esophagus, stomach and intestines can be taken. Both the appearance of the tissue as well as evaluation of the biopsies can help determine the cause and severity of a child’s symptoms. Considerations: For this procedure, your child will be placed under anesthesia. Though routine, both the procedure and anesthesia carry risk. Your gastroenterologist will discuss these in detail prior to undergoing the procedure. Prior to the procedure, patients are asked to fast.


Most cases of uncomplicated reflux are managed with little or no intervention. Often, the reassurance from a healthcare provider that your baby is healthy and thriving is treatment enough. In more severe or bothersome cases, however, your doctor may offer a variety of solutions, including some of the following:
  • Use of a hypoallergenic formula if formula feeding or a restricted diet if breastfeeding. In some babies, symptoms of reflux are attributed to a reaction against certain food proteins. Your doctor may ask you to try a hydrolyzed formula, one in which the cow’s milk proteins are broken down and less likely to cause a reaction. In the case of breastfed babies, mother’s may be asked to avoid cow’s milk, soy, and eggs. In either case, a trial of 1-2 weeks should result in improved symptoms. If there is no change in symptoms, your doctor may advise you return to your regular formula or diet, respectively.
  • Reducing the volume of feeds. In a formula fed baby, reducing the amount of formula given at any one time may alleviate symptoms. Similarly, in a breastfed infant, taking breaks to burp may be helpful.
  • Positioning. Holding your baby upright after feeding may reduce symptoms. NOTE: even if your baby spits up regularly, it is still advised that he sleep on his back on a firm, flat surface unless specifically instructed by a doctor.
  • Thickening of feeds. Some healthcare providers may advise thickening of milk. This can be done with infant cereal (usually rice cereal) or marketed thickeners. Please note that commercially available thickeners have been associated with serious side effects, including death, in babies. Please discuss with your doctor before altering your baby’s milk.
  • Acid suppressing medications. The use of acid suppressing medicines in the treatment of reflux relies on the theory that acid is the problematic factor. Reducing acidity does not change the volume of reflux or spit up, and this is often disconcerting to parents who expect treatment to reduce spit up.  In one study, though acid was reduced with medication, the presence of fussiness was similar in both the treated and untreated groups. The two most common classes of drugs used in the treatment of infant reflux are H2 antagonists (or H2 blockers) and proton pump inhibitors, PPIs. H2 antagonists work by blocking H2 receptors in the cells lining the stomach. This results in reduced acidity (a higher pH) in the stomach. PPIs work by blocking the pump that pushes acid into the stomach. Both these treatments reduce the pH of the stomach. This may be benign in many cases, but concerns regarding side effects remain and treatment should be limited to severe cases.  It is important to remember that the stomach is acidic for a reason. Stomach acid helps absorb many nutrients and the acidity helps kill off or fight infection. Use of PPIs is associated with increased risk of pneumonia and infection. This risk may also pertain to children. There is also a risk of reduced absorption of nutrients, including iron, B12, magnesium and calcium. This is especially concerning in children since iron and B12 deficiency can both cause anemia and magnesium and calcium are essential for bone health. PPIs are not FDA approved for treatment of reflux in infants under a year old and have not been found effective in a meta analysis of their use. However, most pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists use these medications off label and despite the lack of data, PPIs are recommended as the medication of choice for doctors attempting to treat reflux in children. If you are prescribed a PPI, it is important to discuss the possibility of side effects with your doctors.
  • Surgery: Surgical treatment for reflux in infants and children is reserved for the most extreme cases. It is uncommon for children without underlying medical problems to require surgical management.
Note: If spit up is persistent, projectile, or extremely forceful, or your child is not making urine, not feeding well, has fever, or you have any concerns, you should seek medical evaluation immediately. There are many serious conditions which may mimic reflux or GERD. This information is not a substitute for medical care.

Additional Resources

Breastfeeding parents may find La Leche League support helpful, even if a baby has reflux. Further breastfeeding information is available here.

Some parents may find this infographic, prepared by Colic Calm, helpful in understanding proton pump inhibitors and their prevalent use.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recently published guideline for the management of reflux in children. This is intended for health care providers.

Growth of Acid Blockers

What Parents Are Saying

Parent Testimonials

“Colic Calm is a miracle medicine by far! My 2 month old has acid reflux so bad they put her on Prevacid and she is also very gassy. I searched online and found this medicine and gave it a shot. It was so worth it! Emmie no longer suffers from reflux and the gas bubbles are gone! She is such a different baby on Colic Calm. I can say we even tried other gripe waters and they just did not work. She screamed and cried non- stop. I quickly ran to CVS and got another bottle! A little pricey but for Emmie’s comfort and my peace of mind, it’s worth every penny!!”

Kristen Gondrella

“I love colic calm!!! My 10 wk old was diagnosed with acid reflux a week ago. She has always been gassy and fussy, and until this diagnoses I thought this was just how babies act. She was prescribed Zantac and the first time I gave it to her she screamed even worse… For hours! I would’ve too after tasting the Zantac, it tasted like listerine! I didn’t want to give her medicine to start with so I started doing research for a more natural cure and found colic calm. So we ran to CVS right away to pick it up… I started giving it to her and it seemed to be helping. We had to figure the right doses to give her to help the reflux and after three days we saw a remarkable difference… Amazing! I told my pediatrician about the results and she said that if it is working than forget the zantac and just keep doing what we are doing. Thank u so much for making a natural way to help my baby!”

Jennifer R.

“My little one has been dealing with colic and acid reflux for the past 3 or 4 weeks. We have been trying every option that we could find to give her some relief. Finally yesterday I sent my husband to the drug store to buy Colic Calm. We gave our daughter a dose after her final bottle of the night before bedtime, which is when her crying/fussiness was the worst. Within 10 minutes or so she was calm and happy and then slept 6 hours straight!!! My husband and I actually got to have a real conversation and watch a TV show in peace. Your product seems to be a miracle worker!”


“My baby has had acid reflux practically since birth and my husband and I would be going crazy without Colic Calm. My pediatrician didn’t seem to be too impressed when I mentioned it to her, but it is the only thing that soothes my son during an acid attack. We give him half a dose before and after feedings and although his reflux is severe enough that Colic Calm doesn’t cure it, it makes it so much better and calms him down enough to get to sleep. We didn’t try your product at first because it is so much more expensive than other gripe waters and we didn’t know there would be such a difference, but it is worth every penny! Thank you for making this!”

Laura B.

“I cannot tell you how much I Love your product!! My little girl has reflux and colic so she’s always crying. A friend of mine told me about your product and said she swears by it so I gave it a try. I’m so glad I did!! Within minutes of giving her Colic Calm, my baby stopped fussing and was content!! I was Amazed that it actually worked, and how fast it helped her. Now she’s teething and it’s still doing wonders for her! I can actually put her down on the floor or in her swing without her throwing an absolute fit! I can’t thank you enough for your product! And the fact that it’s all natural is even better. The doctor had prescribed zantac for her, but with all the side effects I was hesitant. I don’t have to worry about that with Colic Calm and I Greatly appreciate that! With two kids under the age of 4 I have enough to worry about! It’s just all around made my life a little easier!! Thank you for making such a Wonderful product!”

Jamie Byington

“I have done a lot of research in regards to colic and silent reflux as my son suffers tremendously with both of these infant problems. I tried everything on the Australian market and to no avail. I started researching on the internet and discovered Colic Calm. I must admit that I was very skeptical, reading reviews in regards to the performance of this product it sounded too good to be true. I held off for about three weeks as my husband was not happy it was not approved by the Australian government for safe consumption. I decided I was going to purchase this product as I could not stand to watch my son suffer with these problems any more. I lay with him and cry as I have never seen a baby have real tears flow down there tiny faces before, He was in terrible pain.”

“I purchased Colic Calm through EBay off It arrived 7 days later. The first time I used the product you could notice the difference, it is a true miracle. The screaming ceased and for the first time since my son was born he was happy and actually smiled. Your company has developed a marvelous product and I hope it becomes available to all parents to purchase. In my research I discovered that colic and silent reflux is the number one cause of shaken baby syndrome, how sadden I was when I read these reports as its not the infants fault, but new parents find it hard to cope with these issues. I can imagine all the content babies and parents who could benefit from your product. I hope your company will consider distribution worldwide. Thank you for your wonderful product.”

J. Parr

“Colic Calm has helped us tremendously with our daughter’s acid reflux. While on a family vacation, my uncle, who suffers from Lupus and has holes in his stomach lining caused by a side effect of a medicine combination he had been on, was suffering from terrible stomach pains. He saw my daughter’s response to Colic Calm and decided he’d try some himself. He was amazed to discover that within about 20 minutes, his stomach pains had ceased and he felt better than he’s felt in 2 years. So this time I’m ordering 2 bottles instead of 1 – one for our 3-month-old and the other for my Uncle. Thank you for this amazing product!”

Antoinette Russell

“My baby was unfortunately diagnosed with Acid Reflux. I was quite desperate to find something that could help him because he was not sleeping much at all either day or night and appeared to be in so much discomfort that was heartbreaking.”

“I found colic calm online after doing some research and after the first dose we noticed the difference. He is now taking other medicines as well for the reflux, but colic calm definitely was a huge help! Thank you for your product! I tried different gripe waters while waiting for my order to arrive but the difference in the actual consistency of the product made a big difference. Because the colic calm is thicker, he didn’t spit it out unlike the other gripe water.”

Patricia Sand

“I have been telling everyone I discuss reflux with about Colic Calm. Our daughter was on Prevacid, Erythromycin, and Zantac by the time she was six weeks old. We have been able to discontinue all her medications except Prevacid after using Colic calm for several weeks. We are hoping that she will be able to soon be medication free. Thank you so much for your service and wonderful product!”

Wendy Martin

“Our little lady has had problems with acid reflux. One quick message to customer support and they gave us a quick response. Before most feedings, especially in the evening, we give 0 .5 ml and it has helped very much. This has kept her from taking prescription Zantac for infants. She is gaining weight and thriving and she loves to take here CC. Thank you for a good product and fast response to questions.”

Mark Robertson